IB HL students model the electron transport chain. This is the final stage of aerobic respiration, where the energy is harvested from electrons to make ATP through chemiosmosis.


Designing your own experiments for the purposes of following an inductive line of enquiry is, well, the heartbeat of modern so called ‘hard science’.

IB juniors were challenged this week to create experiments which investigated factors which affect reaction times in Lincoln students.

Reaction times are a measurement of the efficiency of what neurologists call a ‘stimulus-response pathway’, a pathway that ‘bio-electricity’ passes through the body in order to coordinate a response. Processing time in the specific parts of the brain are also involved.

There is a whole wealth of contributing factors involved in determining how fast a Lincoln school student reacts to something.

Each IB student constructed their own research question, and followed their own line of investigation. Students with similar areas of interest collaborated, to allow for complex methodology and sufficient data collection.

Student interest included:

  • gender
  • participation in team sports
  • different flavours of candies and taste-activated response
  • coffee drinking
  • amount of sleep
  • posture
  • length of time spend sitting in one place

(thanks to students for permission to publish these photos. Please contact me if there is an issue with any published photo)

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It is well documented that young adults have a need for play in their daily lives, and that combining learning with play can be successful.

In my own practice I am curious about the process of ‘ constructing memory’ and the role in learning. I have learnt that for many students combining a word with a kinaesthetic motion enhances retention.

This morning as a bit of fun and as a lesson summary, the class made charades for the enzymes involved in DNA replication.



A few months ago the Lincoln school acquired a unique resource; a therapy dog, Jake. Jake can be reserved by classes, or visited by appointment. Scientific evidence is mounting that owning a pet can improve your cardiovascular and mental health. Blood pressure, pulse rate and incidence of heart disease have all been lowered in recent science studies (time magazine). According to a recent article in time

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“In one study, a stressed-out group of adults were told to pet a rabbit, a turtle or their toy forms. The toys had no effect. But stroking a living creature, whether hard-shelled or furry, relieved anxiety. It worked for people regardless of whether they initially said they liked animals.” (time magazine).

What is stress? According to a journal review article on proven stress therapy (), stress is defined as something that threatens the homeostasis of an organism, or a perception of danger. Stress is bad for you. At least, in the chronic sense (long-term, rather than acute). I remember attending a conference where the famous cancer investigator, Dr Bruce Ames (of the Ames test), said that “there is not one single human disease that is not made worse by stress, including cancer”. This should be differentiated from ‘excitement’, or emotional arousal, in that the emotion experienced is one of danger or intense worry. It is noted by psychologists that although stress has a physical manifestation, such as higher pulse rate, it begins in the brain with stressful thinking (Bless and Grousse). Short bursts of worry, such as the rush of emotions when taking an IB exam, may not be so bad for you. This is an acute experience of stress, and should be followed by relief – the outpouring of laugher, shared experiences and commiseration that can be seen outside any exam hall. Chronic stress is experienced when there is no relief, or too little relief.

And it’s a problem in schools. Studies carried out in 2004 (UK, MRC), 2014 (in the US), and others have stated that ‘students are stressed like never before , or like adults’. Which brings us to the interesting part. How do we deal with stress. We can try to tackle the cause, or we can seek to reduce the stress through stress therapy. Enter Jake the dog.


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This week in IB Biology students looked at four indicators of stress:

  1. Pulse rate
  2. Blood pressure
  3. Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
  4. Spirograms, or graphs showing patterns in breathing

One class looked at music therapy, by choosing a song which was voted by the majority of the class as being the most relaxing – “Jack Johnson’s beach strummer – Banana pancakes”, subjects were treated to a seated listening session of this tune while the apparent effect on these stress indicators were measured.


Results are still being collected, stay tuned for the results!




I was lucky enough to celebrate Christmas and New Years in Cape Town, South Africa. While I was there I heard terrifying accounts of groups of Orca (Orca orca), or killer whales, invading the bay and wreaking havoc on populations of dolphins that inhabit the bay. This is a seasonal event, and watchers have seen thousands of dolphins being chased right across the bay by groups of killer whales working together.

Watch this

The really striking thing about this is that killer whales aren’t supposed to eat dolphins. Dolphins and killer whales are quite closely related. IN FACT, killer whales aren’t really whales at all. They are giant dolphins! So it’s almost like cannibalism to think that the Orca have begun to eat their little cousins. In fact, marine biologists who are studying the event say that the first time this was recorded happening was in 2009.

Strange and terrifying apex predators, what really makes Orcas so deadly apart from their speed, size, and terrific sharp teeth; is that they hunt together in packs. Poor dolphins!

Even stranger to hear, marine biologists are reporting that great white sharks (Charcharodon, carchiaris) which have haunted swimmers on this beautiful coast for years; are leaving the bay. What could be dissuading them, there are still plenty of seals and penguins to eat? The answer might be also killer whale attacks. Great white shark carcasses have been found floating in the bay with the liver and pectoral fins ripped off. It is believed that Orcas gang up on Great whites, rip off their pectoral fins so that they can’t defend themselves properly, and then eat their liver while they are still alive. This is enough even to give the mighty Great white shark nightmares. Is this also a new behaviour? Or is it simply becoming more common?


So what is causing these radical changes in behaviour amongst Orcas? Are these really new behaviours, or are we only now becoming aware of them? There are no well documented cased of wild killer whales attacking humans. They have decided either that they like us, or that we don’t look very tasty. What if they change their minds?

Resultado de imagen para killer whale next to a great white shark

This week the seniors are tackling their Internal assessments for IB Biology. A unique and individual experiment has been created by each student, designed to follow a line of enquiry.

Unavoidably, set-backs plague the early stages of an investigation. It is the successful navigation of such challenges which often brings the most exciting moments in an IA investigation. In these moments of small triumph, students live the wonder of real science; where every new discovery is prefaced by a period of struggle and uncertainty. I would like to congratulate my current seniors on their hard work so far!

Some sample photos from this weeks investigations are included below.



May. A large group of Lincoln School teachers led by Iris Prada travelled to Veragua Research station in the province of Limon, Costa Rica.

The objective, was to explore the possibilities for creating new educational experiences for high school students.

The rich biodiversity, the park infrastructure, and the presence of highly skilled and dedicated researchers make this a real possibility that in the new future, the school will be working to provide some of these experiences for our students.

Biology field trip anyone??

Image credit Gerardo Abadia aka Mr Science

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I recently visited the magical region of Monteverde, in Guanacaste province. There is probably no better place to enjoy the grandeur and dignity of plant evolution. From the tiny and featureless liverwort, which is so primitive it seems to be present only as a green smudge with no discernible features; up to the mighty angiosperms which dominate the canopy layer.




I took a nature hike through the salvanatura park, where 5 giant suspension bridges allow the visitor to inspect the canopy layer at the 100ft level. A dazzling array of bromeliads and orchids are on display, these little plants don’t do any work at all to reach such great heights, they merely catch a ride on a giant angiosperm. This method of growing on top of other plants, earns them the label of ‘epiphytes’.

Down on the forest floor I find myself sniffing around for bryophytes, another kind of nonvascular plant (non vascular means they don’t have any vessels for carrying around water or nutrients in their bodies; if you could imagine a person with no arteries or veins that’s like a bryophyte). Another name for bryophytes is mosses, or musgo in spanish. Ferns look beautiful, and in monteverde they grow as big as small trees; called fern trees. It is interesting to note that they are ‘non-woody’ and actually are much softer than ‘real trees’.


Climbing back up to the dizzying heights of the tree-tops again, we can see that apart from the cheeky ‘epiphytes’ the world seems to be ruled by giant angiosperms that reproduce using flowers and fruits. There is even an emerald toucan gobbling up some of them, and we stop to watch.

One group of plants that seems to be missing here is coniferophytes. These trees have needle-like leaves and pine cones, and their wood is aromatic and amongst the most beautiful in the known world. Christmas trees are coniferophytes. There doesn’t seem to be any of this group here, at least not in this part of the park. I wonder if they do a christmas bryophyte with a fairy on top in December? At least it wouldn’t take up much room!

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